Dear all, I am submitting this license on behalf of Mr. Leonardo Chiariglione, the convenor of the MPEG Working Group (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11). MPEG is currently working on the ISO/IEC 23006 MPEG eXtensible Middleware (MXM) standard, which has reached the Committee Draft status, and this license is intended to cover the reference implementation of said upcoming standard. ** Rationale for submission I and Mr. Chiariglione, as well as other people familiar with the matter, have been discussing about the possibility to make the reference implementation that would accompany the above mentioned upcoming International Standard under a Free/Open Source Software that could meet the concerns of the technology contributors' community (mainly, the multimedia software and content industry). We have come to the conclusion that the Mozilla Public License was the closest to meet the constraints, but for the patent deals into it. So we have worked to modify the MPL into what we called the MXM License, which has gathered interim consensus from the Working Group. The ISO/IEC Working Group have expressed the desire to receive the approval from OSI, and Mr. Chiariglione has asked me to volunteer for going through the process. Therefore I am submitting the license here, but the steward of the license is going to be Mr. Chiariglione himself, who receives a carbon copy of this email. As you will notice, we have removed some of the patent conditions that existed in the MPL. This is because none of the contributors would have accepted to encapsulate their patents in a FOSS license without the ability to ask for a license separately from the copyright. This is a basic tenet that is enshrined in the so-called ISO/IEC Directives for the development of International Standards. Some of you might know about my public stance against software patents and my approval to some of the licenses which impose implied licensing to or patent retaliation against all who distribute FOSS software while relying on patent protection. However, the sad truth is that if we did not offer a patent-agnostic license we would have made all efforts to have an open source reference implementation moot. I have insisted and obtained, however, that an explicit patent covenant be inserted, to the effect to exclude from any patent concern all who don't distribute the compiled version of the software and to those who compile it only for internal purposes without direct commercial exploitation. This covenant being irrevocable, unconditioned and detached from the copyright licensing conditions. I have asked myself if this could work and if it complied with the OSI definition. My final conclusion is that if the BSD family is considered compliant, so shall be the MXM, as it does not condition the copyright grant to the obtaining of the patents, just as the BSD licenses don't deal with them. And insofar an implementer is confident that the part of the code it uses if free from the patented area, or it decided to later challenge the patent in case an infringement litigation is threatened, the license works just fine. I also have added some modification to the "litigation" section, where I introduced the concept of RAND patent pool. At least. ** Closest OSI-Approved license: MPL See above for a discussion about the main differences with the MPL ** Proliferation category: Special purpose licenses Please be informed that this license is conceived and intended to be used only to cover a specific use, possibly only extended to similar standards and to serve an example to ISO/IEC that a reference implementation could be made open source. Not for general use ** Status of the license and my personal Despite the license being unofficially approved, we are most keen to receive any feedback from the reviewers and will gladly accept any suggestion or improvement, as long as possible. I will humbly take any blame for the legal mischief done and will work to sort things out. I am a lawyer qualified in Italy and before the European Court of Justice. I am legal counsel to the Free Software Foundation Europe, as well as to some Free/Open Source Software projects, and I am an outspoken Free Software and Digital Liberties advocate, but I am here acting independently from any of my appointments and solely upon instructions from my Client Mr. Chiariglione. None of my words shall be attributed to any other clients or entities to which I am publicly associated. I attach hereto a plaintext version of the license. Thank you for your attention. Carlo Piana ======================== Avv. Carlo Piana Piazza Castello 24 - 20121 Milan - Italy phone +39 02 72 00000 3 fax +39 02 86 90 901 http://law.piana.eu (firm) http://www.piana.eu (blog) email firstname.lastname@example.org **NEW** gpg/pgp public key: http://www.piana.eu/gpg Fingerprint 9046 9688 5465 DDF8 D712 4A7C 7F30 CB15 4580 F067 #old key was revoked, please use the new one# Law is Freedom, and Freedom is all the rest. Protecting digital freedom, your rights!
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDISATION ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 CODING OF MOVING PICTURES AND AUDIO ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 N10167 Busan, KR – October 2008 Source: Systems and Requirements Title: Proposal for MXM Public License Version 1.0 Status Proposal Proposal for MXM Public License Version 1.0 1. Definitions. 1.0.1. "Commercial Use" means distribution or otherwise making the Covered Code available to a third party. 1.1. "Contributor" means each entity that creates or contributes to the creation of Modifications. 1.2. "Contributor Version" means the combination of the Original Code, prior Modifications used by a Contributor, and the Modifications made by that particular Contributor. 1.3. "Covered Code" means the Original Code or Modifications or the combination of the Original Code and Modifications, in each case including portions thereof. 1.4. "Electronic Distribution Mechanism" means a mechanism generally accepted in the software development community for the electronic transfer of data. 1.5. "Executable" means Covered Code in any form other than Source Code. 1.6. "Initial Developer" means the individual or entity identified as the Initial Developer in the Source Code notice required by Exhibit A. 1.7. "Larger Work" means a work which combines Covered Code or portions thereof with code not governed by the terms of this License. 1.8. "License" means this document. 1.8.1. "Licensable" means having the right to grant, to the maximum extent possible, whether at the time of the initial grant or subsequently acquired, any and all of the rights conveyed herein. 1.9. "Modifications" means any addition to or deletion from the substance or structure of either the Original Code or any previous Modifications. When Covered Code is released as a series of files, a Modification is: a.Any addition to or deletion from the contents of a file containing Original Code or previous Modifications. b.Any new file that contains any part of the Original Code or previous Modifications. 1.10. "MPEG" means the Moving Picture Experts Group (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11) 1.11 "Original Code" means Source Code of computer software code which is described in the Source Code notice required by Exhibit A as Original Code, and which, at the time of its release under this License is not already Covered Code governed by this License. 1.11.1. "Patent Claims" means any patent claim(s), now owned or hereafter acquired, including without limitation, method, process, and apparatus claims, in any patent. 1.12. "Source Code" means the preferred form of the Covered Code for making modifications to it, including all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, scripts used to control compilation and installation of an Executable, or source code differential comparisons against either the Original Code or another well known, available Covered Code of the Contributor's choice. The Source Code can be in a compressed or archival form, provided the appropriate decompression or de-archiving software is widely available for no charge. 1.13. "You" (or "Your") means an individual or a legal entity exercising rights under, and complying with all of the terms of, this License or a future version of this License issued under Section 6.1. For legal entities, "You" includes any entity which controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with You. For purposes of this definition, "control" means (a) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (b) ownership of more than fifty percent (50%) of the outstanding shares or beneficial ownership of such entity. 1.14 “RAND Patent Pool” Reasonable And Non Discriminatory clauses as requested by ISO/IEC when submitting a standard for approval and which have been chartered to a patent pool managed by a licensing company. 2. Source Code License. 2.1. General. This software has been developed as a reference implementation of ISO/IEC 23006. The Initial Developer and Contributors hereby irrevocably covenant (“Patent Covenant”) not to assert their Patent Claims over the Covered Code, regardless whether You have obtained a proper license on said patents and as long as the other provisions of this license are respected, limited to any use of this software in Source Code, excluding any distribution as Executable or execution through runtime, debuggers or emulators. Patent Covenant is however extended to the compilation and use of a compiled version (as Executable) of this software for study and evaluation purposes only, with the exclusion of distribution of compiled code or any other commercial exploitation. By way of clarification, this covenant does not limit in any way Your freedom to distribute the Covered Code according to the remainder of the provisions of this license. 2.2. The Initial Developer Grant. The Initial Developer hereby grants You a world-wide, royalty-free, non-exclusive license, subject to intellectual property claims by any party: a.under intellectual property rights (other than patent or trademark) Licensable by Initial Developer to use, reproduce, modify, display, perform, sublicense and distribute the Original Code (or portions thereof) with or without Modifications, and/or as part of a Larger Work. b.the licenses granted in this Section 2.2 (a) are effective on the date Initial Developer first distributes Original Code under the terms of this License. 2.3. Contributor Grant. Each Contributor hereby grants You a world-wide, royalty-free, non-exclusive license, subject to intellectual property claims by any party: a.under intellectual property rights (other than patent or trademark) Licensable by Contributor, to use, reproduce, modify, display, perform, sublicense and distribute the Modifications created by such Contributor (or portions thereof) either on an unmodified basis, with other Modifications, as Covered Code and/or as part of a Larger Work; b.the licenses granted in Sections 2.3 (a) are effective on the date Contributor first makes Commercial Use of the Covered Code. 3. Distribution Obligations. 3.1. Application of License. The Modifications which You create or to which You contribute are governed by the terms of this License. The Source Code version of Covered Code may be distributed only under the terms of this License or a future version of this License released under Section 6.1, and You must include a copy of this License with every copy of the Source Code You distribute. You may not offer or impose any terms on any Source Code version that alters or restricts the applicable version of this License or the recipients' rights hereunder. However, You may include an additional document offering the additional rights described in Section 3.5. 3.2. Availability of Source Code. Any Modification which You create or to which You contribute must be made available in Source Code form under the terms of this License either on the same media as an Executable version or via an accepted Electronic Distribution Mechanism to anyone to whom you made an Executable version available; and if made available via Electronic Distribution Mechanism, must remain available for at least twelve (12) months after the date it initially became available, or at least six (6) months after a subsequent version of that particular Modification has been made available to such recipients. You are responsible for ensuring that the Source Code version remains available even if the Electronic Distribution Mechanism is maintained by a third party. 3.3. Description of Modifications. You must cause all Covered Code to which You contribute to contain a file documenting the changes You made to create that Covered Code and the date of any change. You must include a prominent statement that the Modification is derived, directly or indirectly, from Original Code provided by the Initial Developer and including the name of the Initial Developer in (a) the Source Code, and (b) in any notice in an Executable version or related documentation in which You describe the origin or ownership of the Covered Code. 3.4. Intellectual Property Matters (a) General information Annex XYZ of ISO/IEC 23006 provides a list of parties who have agreed to license their patents if they are necessarily infringed by this software module. (b) Initial Developer’s Claims A text file with the Source Code distribution titled "LEGAL" describes Initial Developer’s claim and details that enable a recipient to know whom to contact. (c) Contributor and Third Party Claims The LEGAL file also describes the claim and the party making the claim in sufficient detail that a recipient will know whom to contact in case Initial Developer and Contributor have knowledge that a license under a third party's intellectual property rights is required to exercise the rights granted by Initial Developer under Sections 2.2 or 2.3. If Contributor has knowledge that a license under a third party's intellectual property rights is required to exercise the rights granted by such Contributor under Sections 2.2 or 2.3, Contributor must include a LEGAL file which describes the claim and the party making the claim in sufficient detail that a recipient will know whom to contact. If Contributor obtains such knowledge after the Modification is made available as described in Section 3.2, Contributor shall promptly modify the LEGAL file in all copies Contributor makes available thereafter and shall take other steps (such as notifying appropriate mailing lists or newsgroups) reasonably calculated to inform those who received the Covered Code that new knowledge has been obtained. (d) Contributor APIs If Contributor's Modifications include an application programming interface and Contributor has knowledge of patent licenses which are reasonably necessary to implement that API, Contributor must also include this information in the legal file. (e) Representations. Contributor represents that, except as disclosed pursuant to Section 3.4 (a) above, Contributor believes that Contributor's Modifications are Contributor's original creation(s) and/or Contributor has sufficient rights to grant the rights conveyed by this License. 3.5. Required Notices. You must duplicate the notice in Exhibit A in each file of the Source Code. If it is not possible to put such notice in a particular Source Code file due to its structure, then You must include such notice in a location (such as a relevant directory) where a user would be likely to look for such a notice. If You created one or more Modification(s) You may add your name as a Contributor to the notice described in Exhibit A. You must also duplicate this License in any documentation for the Source Code where You describe recipients' rights or ownership rights relating to Covered Code. You may choose to offer, and to charge a fee for, warranty, support, indemnity or liability obligations to one or more recipients of Covered Code. However, You may do so only on Your own behalf, and not on behalf of the Initial Developer or any Contributor. You must make it absolutely clear than any such warranty, support, indemnity or liability obligation is offered by You alone, and You hereby agree to indemnify the Initial Developer and every Contributor for any liability incurred by the Initial Developer or such Contributor as a result of warranty, support, indemnity or liability terms You offer. 3.6. Distribution of Executable Versions. You may distribute Covered Code in Executable form only if the requirements of Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5 have been met for that Covered Code, and if You include a notice stating that the Source Code version of the Covered Code is available under the terms of this License, including a description of how and where You have fulfilled the obligations of Section 3.2. The notice must be conspicuously included in any notice in an Executable version, related documentation or collateral in which You describe recipients' rights relating to the Covered Code. You may distribute the Executable version of Covered Code or ownership rights under a license of Your choice, which may contain terms different from this License, provided that You are in compliance with the terms of this License and that the license for the Executable version does not attempt to limit or alter the recipient's rights in the Source Code version from the rights set forth in this License. If You distribute the Executable version under a different license You must make it absolutely clear that any terms which differ from this License are offered by You alone, not by the Initial Developer or any Contributor. You hereby agree to indemnify the Initial Developer and every Contributor for any liability incurred by the Initial Developer or such Contributor as a result of any such terms You offer. 3.7. Larger Works. You may create a Larger Work by combining Covered Code with other code not governed by the terms of this License and distribute the Larger Work as a single product. In such a case, You must make sure the requirements of this License are fulfilled for the Covered Code. 4. Inability to Comply Due to Statute or Regulation. If it is impossible for You to comply with any of the terms of this License with respect to some or all of the Covered Code due to statute, judicial order, or regulation then You must: (a) comply with the terms of this License to the maximum extent possible; and (b) describe the limitations and the code they affect. Such description must be included in the legal file described in Section 3.4 and must be included with all distributions of the Source Code. Except to the extent prohibited by statute or regulation, such description must be sufficiently detailed for a recipient of ordinary skill to be able to understand it. 5. Application of this License. This License applies to code to which the Initial Developer has attached the notice in Exhibit A and to related Covered Code. 6. Versions of the License. 6.1. New Versions MPEG may publish revised and/or new versions of the License from time to time. Each version will be given a distinguishing version number. 6.2. Effect of New Versions Once Covered Code has been published under a particular version of the License, You may always continue to use it under the terms of that version. You may also choose to use such Covered Code under the terms of any subsequent version of the License published by MPEG. No one other than MPEG has the right to modify the terms applicable to Covered Code created under this License. 6.3. Derivative Works This license is derived from, but has many differences from, the Mozilla Public License version 1.1. If You create or use a modified version of this License (which you may only do in order to apply it to code which is not already Covered Code governed by this License), You must (a) rename Your license so that the phrases "Mozilla", "MOZILLAPL", "MOZPL", "Netscape", "MPL", "NPL", "MPEG", "MXM Public License", "MPEG MXM" or any confusingly similar phrase do not appear in your license (except to note that your license differs from this License) and (b) otherwise make it clear that Your version of the license contains terms which differ from the MXM Public License, Mozilla Public License and Netscape Public License. (Filling in the name of the Initial Developer, Original Code or Contributor in the notice described in Exhibit A shall not of themselves be deemed to be modifications of this License.) 7. Disclaimer of warranty Covered code is provided under this license on an "as is" basis, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, without limitation, warranties that the covered code is free of defects, merchantable, fit for a particular purpose or non-infringing. The entire risk as to the quality and performance of the covered code is with you. Should any covered code prove defective in any respect, you (not the initial developer or any other contributor) assume the cost of any necessary servicing, repair or correction. This disclaimer of warranty constitutes an essential part of this license. No use of any covered code is authorized hereunder except under this disclaimer. 8. Termination 8.1. This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically if You fail to comply with terms herein and fail to cure such breach within 30 days of becoming aware of the breach. All sublicenses to the Covered Code which are properly granted shall survive any termination of this License. Provisions which, by their nature, must remain in effect beyond the termination of this License shall survive. 8.2. If You initiate litigation by asserting a patent infringement claim (excluding declaratory judgment actions and excluding non-frivolous litigation on any actions based on the patents which have been duly conferred in a RAND Patent Pool and made available under that RAND Patent Pool licensing scheme) against the Initial Developer or a Contributor (the Initial Developer or Contributor against whom You file such action is referred to as "Participant") alleging that: a.such Participant's Contributor Version directly or indirectly infringes any patent, then any and all rights granted by such Participant to You under Sections 2.2 and/or 2.3 of this License shall, upon 60 days notice from Participant terminate prospectively, unless if within 60 days after receipt of notice You either: (i) confer all such patents to a RAND Patent Pool; or (ii) withdraw Your litigation claim with respect to the Contributor Version against such Participant. If within 60 days of notice the patents upon which the litigation claim is based, or the litigation claim is not withdrawn, the rights granted by Participant to You under Sections 2.21 and/or 2.32 automatically terminate at the expiration of the 60 day notice period specified above. 8.3. If You assert a patent infringement claim against Participant alleging that such Participant's Contributor Version directly or indirectly infringes any patent where such claim is resolved (such as by license or settlement) prior to the initiation of patent infringement litigation, then the reasonable value of the licenses granted by such Participant under Sections 2.2 or 2.3 shall be taken into account in determining the amount or value of any payment or license. 8.4. In the event of termination under Sections 8.1 or 8.2 above, all end user license agreements (excluding distributors and resellers) which have been validly granted by You or any distributor hereunder prior to termination shall survive termination. 9. Limitation of liability Under no circumstances and under no legal theory, whether tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, shall you, the initial developer, any other contributor, or any distributor of covered code, or any supplier of any of such parties, be liable to any person for any indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character including, without limitation, damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses, even if such party shall have been informed of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall not apply to liability for death or personal injury resulting from such party's negligence to the extent applicable law prohibits such limitation. Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so this exclusion and limitation may not apply to you. 10. Miscellaneous This License represents the complete agreement concerning subject matter hereof. If any provision of this License is held to be unenforceable, such provision shall be reformed only to the extent necessary to make it enforceable. This License shall be governed by California law provisions (except to the extent applicable law, if any, provides otherwise), excluding its conflict-of-law provisions. With respect to disputes in which at least one party is a citizen of, or an entity chartered or registered to do business in the United States of America, any litigation relating to this License shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Courts of the Northern District of California, with venue lying in Santa Clara County, California, with the losing party responsible for costs, including without limitation, court costs and reasonable attorneys' fees and expenses. The application of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods is expressly excluded. Any law or regulation which provides that the language of a contract shall be construed against the drafter shall not apply to this License. 11. Responsibility for claims As between Initial Developer and the Contributors, each party is responsible for claims and damages arising, directly or indirectly, out of its utilization of rights under this License and You agree to work with Initial Developer and Contributors to distribute such responsibility on an equitable basis. Nothing herein is intended or shall be deemed to constitute any admission of liability. 12. Multiple-licensed code Initial Developer may designate portions of the Covered Code as "Multiple-Licensed". "Multiple-Licensed" means that the Initial Developer permits you to utilize portions of the Covered Code under Your choice of the MPL or the alternative licenses, if any, specified by the Initial Developer in the file described in Exhibit A. Exhibit A - MXM Public License. "The contents of this file are subject to the MXM Public License Version 1.1 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/MXM/ Software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing rights and limitations under the License. The Original Code is . The Initial Developer of the Original Code is . Portions created by are Copyright (C) . All Rights Reserved. Contributor(s): . Alternatively, the contents of this file may be used under the terms of the license (the "[ ] License"), in which case the provisions of [ ] License are applicable instead of those above. If you wish to allow use of your version of this file only under the terms of the [ ] License and not to allow others to use your version of this file under the MXM Public Licence, indicate your decision by deleting the provisions above and replace them with the notice and other provisions required by the [ ] License. If you do not delete the provisions above, a recipient may use your version of this file under either the MPL or the [ ] License." NOTE: The text of this Exhibit A may differ slightly from the text of the notices in the Source Code files of the Original Code. You should use the text of this Exhibit A rather than the text found in the Original Code Source Code for Your Modifications.